Monash University
For Nation, King, and Company_Georgia O'Connor_Final submission.pdf (1.69 MB)

“For Nation, King, and Company”: William Norris, two English East India companies, and a forgotten embassy to Mughal India, 1699–1702

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posted on 2022-02-01, 23:43 authored by GEORGIA EVELYN O'CONNOR
In 1699, English ambassador William Norris was dispatched by King William III and a new East India Company on an embassy to Mughal India. The mission was a spectacular failure and cost a staggering £80,000. Using Norris’s unpublished and handwritten diaries, my research examines the reasons behind the embassy’s downfall. In so doing, it not only sheds light on a largely neglected episode in the history of the English in India, but also builds on recent scholarship that understands the road to the British Empire as haphazard, chaotic, and littered with failures and surprises.


Principal supervisor

Carolyn Patricia James

Additional supervisor 1

Adam Clulow

Year of Award


Department, School or Centre

School of Philosophical, Historical & International Studies


Doctor of Philosophy

Degree Type



Faculty of Arts