Embargoed and Restricted Access
Reason: Under embargo until 28 December 2024. After this date a copy can be supplied under Section 51(2) of the Australian Copyright Act 1968 by submitting a document delivery request through your library
Supplementation of tocotrienol-rich fraction enhanced immune response in BALB/c mice challenged with tetanus toxoid vaccine through modulation of the T-helper-1 immune response and gut microbiome
thesisposted on 2023-12-28, 05:39 authored by DEMING LOOI
Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble compound, is crucial for human health. Tocotrienols, a lesser-known vitamin E subclass found in palm oil, have gained attention for their unique bioactive properties. Tocotrienol rich-fraction (TRF) combines different tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol, offering potent antioxidant effects and diverse benefits like neuroprotection and immune modulation. This study examined TRF's impact on mice subjected to an immunological challenge with TT vaccine. TRF increased anti-TT IgG expression but didn't affect IL-12 and IFN-γ levels. Transcriptomics revealed upregulated genes related to IFN-γ and immune activation via IL-12 signaling. TRF also downregulated immune-suppressive pathways, promoting Th1 cell differentiation. TRF enriched beneficial gut bacteria and increased butyrate production, suggesting immune-regulatory potential.