Monash University
gpwrajeg_2019_metaphor_and_near_synonyms_thesis_Redacted.pdf (2.66 MB)

Metaphorical profiles and near-synonyms: A corpus-based study of Indonesian words for HAPPINESS

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posted on 2019-04-09, 06:16 authored by Gede Primahadi Wijaya RajegGede Primahadi Wijaya Rajeg
This thesis investigates metaphors for different words of happiness in Indonesian. It finds that happiness is predominantly described, among others, as an object we possess, share, and acquire; a goal one seeks to attain; a substance filling the human-body. Moreover, each of the happiness words shows statistical preferences for certain metaphors. For instance, while kebahagiaan ‘happiness’ and kesenangan ‘pleasure’ are frequently described as a desired goal, this metaphor is much less frequent for kegembiraan ‘joy’, described more frequently as a contained liquid (e.g., kegembiraan terpancar ‘joy is spurted out’). This suggests nuances between these happiness words in Indonesian.

The supplementary materials for the thesis (data and R codes for analyses) are bundled into an R package happyr (Rajeg, 2018).


Principal supervisor

Alice Gaby

Additional supervisor 1

Howard Manns

Additional supervisor 2

Simon Musgrave

Year of Award


Department, School or Centre

School of Language, Literatures, Cultures and Linguistics


Doctor of Philosophy

Degree Type


Campus location



Faculty of Arts