Monash University

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Reason: Under embargo until August 2022. After this date a copy can be supplied under Section 51(2) of the Australian Copyright Act 1968 by submitting a document delivery request through your library

Evaluation of the Stiffness of a Synthetic Soft Rock using Bender Elements

posted on 2021-08-25, 00:33 authored by Michael von't Steen
Significant strength and stiffness come from the intact structure of soft rock, however, conventional drilling, sampling and extraction disturbs the material structure and results in a under representation of measured parameters. Non-destructive wave-based methods instead preserve the material structure, but the stiffness is measured at smaller strains than typically encountered in geotechnical applications. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic hard soil/ soft rock at different moisture contents using bender elements and compared to conventional unconfined compressive testing. Design curves were developed that allows a stiffness measured using bender element wave based methods to be scaled to any other intermediate strain.


Campus location


Principal supervisor

Abdelmalek Bouazza

Year of Award


Department, School or Centre

Civil Engineering


Doctor of Philosophy

Degree Type



Faculty of Engineering

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