Monash University

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Evaluation of adoption of LED lighting technology in Malaysia

Version 2 2022-07-06, 05:26
Version 1 2017-09-26, 23:23
posted on 2022-07-06, 05:26 authored by Hasti Khorasanizadeh
Electrical energy consumption in Malaysia is rapidly increasing with illumination being the second largest contributor to this increment. Light Emitting Diode (LED) could be a viable option to reduce the illumination based energy consumption. LEDs are energy efficient and easier to recycle compared to traditional lighting sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. They also have longer life time and lower failure rate. In this thesis, the feasibility of replacing the traditional light sources with LEDs is evaluated in the Malaysian context.
In this thesis, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is modified to understand the adoption of LED-lighting in Malaysia. Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating condition, social influence and behavior intention are the basic factors in UTAUT. However, in this study, four other factors were added to investigate environmental, social and cultural effects. These factors are: past buying behavior, postmodernist values, media exposure and environmental values. Results show that, for rapid adoption of LEDs in Malaysia, technology and environmental awareness and social engagement should be enhanced simultaneously. On a global scale, replacement of traditional light sources with LEDs will result in significant benefits including considerable energy savings, substantial reduction in CO2 emissions, significant drop in the emission of pollutants such as SO2 (source of acid rain), mercury (Hg), uranium (U) and increase in financial savings. Based on the calculations in this study, it was found that, if 62% incandescent Lamps are replaced with LEDs, the emission will drop to 0.145 Mtons by 2020 in residential buildings. This corresponds to a CO2 emission reduction of 10.7 %. The LED adoption can be further encouraged through government subsidies.
Study of beta activity of brain electroencephalography signal (EEG) under different light sources shows that the amount of attention under LED is higher compared to other sources with the same correlated color temperature (CCT). Although the participants in this study prefer fluorescent light in 3800 K in terms of pleasantness and visual comfort, they claim that light from LED in 4150 K is more natural. This study recommends the wide adoption of LED lighting in Malaysia through education. Activity theory is suggested as the basis for the development of the educational model for increasing the adoption of LEDs among public.


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Principal supervisor

Rajendran Parthiban

Additional supervisor 1

Jussi Parkkinen

Year of Award


Department, School or Centre

Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering


Doctor of Philosophy

Degree Type



Faculty of Engineering

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