Monash University

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Barriers and Facilitators of Antiretrovirals Adherence and Evaluation of Cost Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Care Interventions to Improve the Health Outcomes of People Living with HIV/AIDS

posted on 2023-04-04, 13:42 authored by ALI AHMED
Nowadays, very safe and effective antiretrovirals (ARVs) are available for people living with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, approximately 9.4 million people living with HIV (PLWH) are not adherent to therapy. During my Ph.D. journey, I explored PLWH-reported barriers and facilitators to adherence and developed pharmacist interventions to improve the health outcomes of PLWH. Findings of the dissertation found that pharmacists’ education and counseling sessions improved adherence to ARV, immunity, and viral load suppression. Pharmacists improved antiretroviral stewardship by reviewing medication prescribed, monitoring drug interactions, preventing adverse drug reactions, and improving the quality of life of PLWH.


Campus location


Principal supervisor

Alice Lay Hong Chuah

Additional supervisor 1

Dr. Juman Abdulelah Dujaili

Additional supervisor 2

Prof. Ahmed Awaisu

Additional supervisor 3

Prof. Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

Additional supervisor 4

Prof. Furqan Khurshid Hashmi

Year of Award


Department, School or Centre

School of Pharmacy (Malaysia)


Doctor of Philosophy

Degree Type



Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences