Monash University

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Antecedents of consumer purchase decision: an investigation of the efficacy of the TPB model in explaining Malaysian consumers’ purchase of locally made automobile

posted on 2017-02-09, 02:31 authored by Hossain, Imtiaz Sharik
Consumer purchase decision has always been considered as an enigma for both researchers and marketers for many decades. Empirical findings have emerged with various solutions but product failure remains a major concern for researchers and practioners. The current study intended to determine the actual factors that consumers take into consideration during their buying decision. Malaysian consumers’ purchase of the automobile brand Proton was the case of reference. In pursuit of an approach more explanatory, the researcher extended the traditional theory of planned behaviour (TPB) by incorporating additional latent variables (i.e., ethnocentrism, brand attachment, brand commitment, and pricing) and emotional elements to explain Malaysian consumers’ buying decision for Proton. In order to achieve the research objectives, qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. In the first phase, Malaysian citizens and Proton owners were interviewed using Zaltman Metahpor Elicititation Technique (ZMET) to extract actual consumers’ emotional expressions on Proton. Based on the themes emerged from the ZMET analysis, a ‘consensus map’ was formed that led to identify 19 emotional items to measure some of the constructs in the extended TPB model. In the second phase of the study, primary data from a sample of 399 Malaysian Proton users were used in SEM to test the predictive power of the alternative models and hypothesized relationships in the extended model. The extended version of the TPB model explained 58% (R2=58) - an increase of 11% compared to 47% explained by the original TPB (R2=.47). Incorporation of the emotional elements in the model increased the predictive power of the overall extended model by 2% (R2=.60). In short, the research was able to establish a proposed theoretical model that explained 60% of the variance of purchase intention. Finally, the findings suggest that the original TPB model lacks adequacy in certain aspects and an extension can improve the understanding of consumers’ actual behaviour. The study further asserts that certain emotional characteristics also contribute to the enhancement of the TPB model and increase the explanatory power of the overall model. Thus, the derived model significantly contributes to the growing body of literature. The effort to employ the integrated approaches (qualitative and quantitative) further entails theoretical, methodological and practical implications with respect to Malaysian consumers’ buying behaviour toward the national brand.


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Principal supervisor

Md. Yunus Ali

Year of Award


Department, School or Centre

Business and Economics (Monash University Malaysia)


Doctor of Philosophy

Degree Type



Faculty of Business and Economics

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