Structural diversity, biosynthesis, and biological functions of lipopeptides from Streptomyces
Streptomyces are ubiquitous in terrestrial and marine environment, where they display a fascinating metabolic diversity. As a result, these bacteria are a prolific source of active natural products. One important class of these natural products is the nonribosomal lipopeptides, which have diverse biological activities and play important roles in the lifestyle of Streptomyces. The importance of this class is highlighted by the use of related antibiotics in the clinic, such as daptomycin (tradename Cubicin). By virtue of recent advances spanning chemistry and biology, significant progress has been made in biosynthetic studies on the lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces. This review will serve as a comprehensive guide for researchers working in this multidisciplinary field, providing a summary of recent progress regarding the investigation of lipopeptides from Streptomyces. In particular, we highlight the structures, properties, biosynthetic mechanisms, chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis, and biological functions of lipopeptides. In addition, the application of genome mining techniques to Streptomyces that have led to the discovery of many novel lipopeptides is discussed, further demonstrating the potential of lipopeptides from Streptomyces for future development in modern medicine.
ARC Centre of Excellence for Innovations in Peptide and Protein Science
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