Monash University
monash_62648.pdf (540.57 kB)

Is management-by-exception a single factor ?

Download (540.57 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2017-06-07, 06:12 authored by Densten, Iain L., Gray, Judy
The current study examines the leadership behavior of Management-by-Exception by using quantitative and qualitative methods. By distinguishing between manifest (observable) and latent (unobservable) variables, the study enabled the concept of Management-by-Exception to be clarified. A sample of 480 senior police officers was used. The results support the notion that Management-by-Exception should be considered as a single latent variable. Qualitative analysis identified three manifest variables that are observable indicators of Management-of-Exception. Implications for investigating leadership using both quantitative and qualitative research methods are discussed.


Year of first publication



Working paper series (Monash University. Department of Business Management).

Usage metrics


    No categories selected