Is management-by-exception a single factor ?
journal contributionposted on 07.06.2017 by Densten, Iain L., Gray, Judy
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
The current study examines the leadership behavior of Management-by-Exception by using quantitative and qualitative methods. By distinguishing between manifest (observable) and latent (unobservable) variables, the study enabled the concept of Management-by-Exception to be clarified. A sample of 480 senior police officers was used. The results support the notion that Management-by-Exception should be considered as a single latent variable. Qualitative analysis identified three manifest variables that are observable indicators of Management-of-Exception. Implications for investigating leadership using both quantitative and qualitative research methods are discussed.