Monash University
Cumpston_et_al_2023_PICO.xlsx (297.49 kB)
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PICO for synthesis data file: Cumpston_et_al_2023_PICO.xlsx

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 This file includes the data extracted and coded from systematic reviews included in the paper:

"Cumpston MS, Brennan SE, Ryan R, Thomas J, McKenzie JE. 2023. Synthesis questions are incompletely reported: survey of systematic reviews"

Data dictionary: PICO for synthesis data dictionary (

Analysis code: PICO for synthesis Stata code: (

Study protocol: Cumpston MS, McKenzie JE, Thomas J and Brennan SE. The use of ‘PICO for synthesis’ and methods for synthesis without meta-analysis: protocol for a survey of current practice in systematic reviews of health interventions. F1000Research 2021, 9:678. (

Note: Naming convention of the variables. The naming convention for the variables links to the data dictionary. The character prefix identifies the section of the data_directory (e.g. variables names with the prefix 'Chars' are from the 'CHARACTERISTICS' section). The number of the variable reflects the item number in the data dictionary, except that the first digit is removed because this is captured by the character prefix. For example, Chars_2 is item number 1.2 under the 'CHARACTERISTICS' section of the data dictionary.


Australian Government Research Training Program


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